Cancer Review: From Symptoms to Treatments

Cancer is a complex group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. It can affect various organs and tissues, leading to a wide range of symptoms.


– Persistent fatigue
– Unexplained weight loss
– Pain in specific areas
– Changes in the skin, such as darkening or yellowing
– Changes in bowel or bladder habits
– Persistent cough or hoarseness
– Difficulty swallowing or prolonged indigestion
– Appearance of lumps or thickening in breasts or other body parts


Cancer can arise from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic mutations play a crucial role in initiating cancer by disrupting the normal regulation of cell growth and division. Environmental factors like exposure to carcinogens (e.g., tobacco smoke, certain chemicals, radiation) and lifestyle choices (e.g., unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity) can increase the risk of developing cancer.

Molecular Mechanisms:

Various molecular mechanisms contribute to the development of cancer. These include:

Mutations in oncogenes: Certain genes, known as oncogenes, control cell growth and division. Mutations in these genes can lead to their overactivation, promoting uncontrolled cell growth.

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Tumor suppressor genes normally regulate cell division and prevent the formation of cancer. However, when these genes get mutated or inactivated, they lose their ability to control cell growth.

Genomic instability: Cancer cells often exhibit abnormalities in their DNA repair mechanisms, leading to genetic mutations and genomic instability.

Angiogenesis: Tumors can stimulate the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) to ensure a blood supply to support their growth and survival.

Uncontrolled Inflammation:

Cancer is often the result of uncontrolled inflammation in the body. Inflammation is a normal and necessary response of the immune system to protect the body from infections and injuries. However, chronic or long-term inflammation can lead to damage in the cells and tissues, increasing the risk of cancer development.

When inflammation persists for an extended period, it can disrupt the normal cell growth and repair processes. Chronic inflammation can cause DNA damage and genetic mutations, which are key precursors to cancer. Inflammatory cells release harmful molecules, such as free radicals and cytokines, that can harm the DNA within cells, leading to genetic alterations that promote the growth and spread of cancer cells.

Moreover, inflammation can also promote angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, which is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Inflammatory molecules stimulate the production of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that facilitate the development of a blood supply to sustain the growing tumor.

Furthermore, chronic inflammation can weaken the immune system, impairing its ability to recognize and eliminate abnormal cells. This allows cancer cells to evade the immune response and continue to proliferate. Additionally, inflammation can create an environment that supports tumor growth by suppressing the immune response and facilitating the recruitment of other cells that promote tumor progression.

Overall, uncontrolled inflammation can fuel the development and progression of cancer by causing DNA damage, promoting angiogenesis, and suppressing the immune system. Understanding the relationship between inflammation and cancer is crucial for developing new strategies for prevention, detection, and treatment of cancer.

Traditional Treatments:

Cancer treatments aim to eliminate or control the growth of cancer cells. They can include:

Surgery: The removal of tumor or affected tissues through surgical procedures.

Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells or shrink tumors.

Chemotherapy: The administration of drugs that kill rapidly dividing cells throughout the body.

Targeted therapy: Utilizes drugs that specifically target molecular alterations and pathways involved in cancer growth.

Immunotherapy: Enhances the body’s immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

Hormone therapy: Blocks or interferes with hormones that promote the growth of certain types of cancer.

Stem cell transplant: Restores healthy stem cells to the body after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatment.

It is important to note that cancer types vary greatly, and treatment plans are tailored to each individual’s specific diagnosis, stage of cancer, and overall health.


Alternative Treatments:

Here is a short list of alternative cancer treatments along with a brief overview of how each treatment might work. It is important to note that these alternative treatments have varying levels of scientific evidence for their effectiveness, and many of them lack clinical trials to support their claims. Always consult with a medical professional before considering any alternative cancer treatments.

1. Acupuncture: Traditional Chinese medicine technique involving the insertion of fine needles into specific points on the body, believed to stimulate energy flow and promote healing.

2. Ayurvedic medicine: An ancient Indian holistic healing system using various herbs, dietary changes, meditation, and other practices to restore balance and well-being.

3. Detoxification diets: Certain diets aim to eliminate toxins from the body, generally through fasting, juicing, or specific food consumption.

4. Essential oils: Concentrated plant extracts used in aromatherapy or topically, believed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and stress-reducing effects.

5. Gerson therapy: Involves a strict organic vegetarian diet combined with juicing, detoxification, and supplementation to increase the body’s natural healing response.

6. Hyperthermia: The use of heat, either externally or internally, to damage or kill cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

7. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells, often through the use of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, or immune checkpoint inhibitors.

8. Juicing: Consuming freshly extracted juices from fruits and vegetables to provide essential nutrients in a concentrated form.

9. Meditation and mindfulness: Practices that promote relaxation, stress reduction, and overall well-being, potentially assisting in the body’s healing process.

10. Ozone therapy: The introduction of ozone gas into the body through various methods, believed to stimulate the immune system, improve cellular function, and kill cancer cells.

11. Photodynamic therapy: Involves administering a photosensitizing substance and then exposing the tumor to light, causing the substance to produce reactive oxygen species that can destroy cancer cells.

12. Reiki: Energy healing technique from Japan, involving the practitioner’s hands placed lightly on or near the body and channeling energy to promote healing and balance.

13. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): An ancient practice that combines herbal medicine, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and other modalities to restore the body’s balance and overall health.

14. Vitamin C therapy: High-dose intravenous administration of vitamin C, which some believe acts as an antioxidant, stimulates the immune system, and selectively kills cancer cells.

15. Wheatgrass therapy: Consuming wheatgrass juice or extracts that contain various vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and enzymes to support overall health and enhance the immune system.

It is important to approach alternative treatments with caution, as their efficacy and safety may vary. Always consult with qualified healthcare professionals before adding or substituting any alternative treatment for conventional cancer treatment.

More Information

The Mayo Clinic website offers a comprehensive list of cancer symptoms, including fatigue, difficulty breathing, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, and various other signs and symptoms related to different types of cancer[1]. Additionally, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a review of the prevalence and impact of multiple symptoms in oncology patients, emphasizing the negative outcomes associated with unmanaged symptoms and the influence of cancer treatment on symptom prevalence and severity[2]. Furthermore, the Mayo Clinic discusses various cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy, highlighting their role in relieving symptoms and controlling the spread of cancer[3]. The NCBI also addresses the symptoms of cancer patients in an outpatient setting, including fatigue, pain, lack of appetite, and dyspnea, and the need for adequate treatment of these symptoms[4]. Moreover, the American Cancer Society emphasizes that even if advanced cancers cannot be cured, physical symptoms can usually be managed, and treatment choices depend on the type of cancer, its spread, and the goal of relieving suffering and improving quality of life[5].

The provided information covers a wide range of cancer symptoms and treatments, including the prevalence and impact of symptoms, the influence of cancer treatment on symptom severity, and the management of symptoms in advanced cancer. If you need more specific information on particular symptoms or treatments, please let me know.



Hiram Abiffis

Hiram Abiffis is a retired MD and researcher who started writing for Newsi8 in 2023.

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